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|Cause of death||Heart Attack|
|Alma mater||American University of Beirut
Architectural Association School of Architecture, London
|Practice||Zaha Hadid Architects|
|Buildings||MAXXI, Bridge Pavilion, Maggie’s Centre, Contemporary Arts Center|
Dame Zaha Mohammad Hadid DBE RA (Arabic: زها حديد Zahā Ḥadīd; 31 October 1950 – 31 March 2016) was an Iraqi-British architect.
She was the first woman to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize, in 2004.She received the UK’s most prestigious architectural award, the Stirling Prize, in 2010 and 2011. In 2012, she was made a Dame by Elizabeth II for services to architecture, and in 2015 she became the first and only woman to be awarded the Royal Gold Medal from the Royal Institute of British Architects.
She was described by the The Guardian of London as the ‘Queen of the curve’,who “liberated architectural geometry, giving it a whole new expressive identity.” Her major works include the aquatic centre for the London 2012 Olympics, Michigan State University’s Broad Art Museum in the US,
Early life and academic career
Hadid was born on 31 October 1950 in Baghdad, Iraq, to an upper-class Iraqi family. Her father Mohammed Hadid Muhammad al-Hajj Husayn Hadid was a wealthy industrialist from Mosul. He co-founded the left-liberal al-Ahali group in 1932, a significant political organisation in the 1930s and 1940s. He was the co-founder of the National Democratic Party in Iraq. He served as minister of finance after the overthrow of the monarch after the 1958 Iraqi coup d’état for the government of General Abd al-Karim Qasim. Her mother Wajiha al-Sabunji was an artist from Mosul.
Early buildings (1991–2005)
Vitra Fire Station in Weil am Rhein, Germany (1991–93)
Bergisel Ski Jump, Innsbruck, Austria (1999–2002)
Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, Ohio (1997–2003)
Phaeno Science Center, Wolfsburg, Germany (2000–2005)
Phaeno Science Center interior
Administration building of BMW Factory in Leipzig, Germany (2001–2005)
Extension of Ordrupgaard Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark (2001–2005)
Vitra Fire Station (1991–93)
One of her first clients was Rolf Fehlbaum, the president-director general of the German furniture firm Vitra, and later, from 2004 to 2010, a member of the jury for the prestigious Pritzker Architecture Prize. In 1989 Fehlbaum had invited Frank Gehry, then little-known, to build a design
museum at the Vitra factory in Weil-am-Rhein. In 1993, he invited Hadid to design a small fire station for the factory. Her radical design, made of raw concrete and glass, was a sculptural work composed of sharp diagonal forms colliding together in the centre. It appeared in architecture magazines before it was ever constructed.
Bergisel Ski Jump (1999–2002)
Hadid designed a public housing estate in Berlin (1986–1993) and organised an exhibition, “The Great Utopia” (1992), at the Guggenheim Museum in New York. Her next major project was a ski jump at Bergisel, in Innsbruck Austria. The old ski jump, built in 1926, had been used in the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics. The new structure was to contain not only a ski jump, but also a cafe with 150 seats offering a 360-degree view of the mountains.
Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati (1997–2000)
At the end of the 1990s, her career began to gather momentum, as she won commissions for two museums and a large industrial building. She competed against Rem Koolhaas and other well-known architects for the design of the Contemporary Arts Center in Cincinnati, Ohio (1997–2000). She won, and became the first woman to design an art museum in the United States.
Phaeno Science Center (2000–2005)
In 2000 she won an international competition for the Phaeno Science Center, in Wolfsburg, Germany (2002–2005). The new museum was only a little larger than the Cincinnati Museum, with 9,000 square metres of space, but the plan was much more ambitious. It was similar in concept to the buildings of Le Corbusier, raised up seven metres on concrete pylons. Unlike Corbusier’s buildings.
Ordrupgaard Museum extension (2001–2005)
In 2001 she began another museum project, an extension of the Ordrupgaard Museum in Copenhagen, Denmark, a museum featuring a collection of 19th century French and Danish art in the 19th-century mansion of its collector. The new building is 87 metres long and 20 metres wide, and is connected by a five-metre wide passage to the old museum. There are no right angles – only diagonals – in the concrete shell of the museum. The floor-to-ceiling glass walls of the gallery make the garden the backdrop of the exhibits.
BMW Administration Building (2001–2005)
In 2002 she won the competition to design a new administrative building for the factory of the auto manufacturer BMW in Leipzig, Germany. The three assembly buildings adjoining it were designed by other architects; her building served as the entrance and what she called the “nerve centre” of the complex. As with the Phaeno Science Center, the building is hoisted above street level on leaning concrete pylons.
Major projects (2006–2010)
Bridge Pavilion in Zaragoza, Spain (2005–2008)
Hadid’s design of project for MAXXI in Rome, Italy (1998–2010)
MAXXI Entrance, Rome, Italy (1998–2010)
Zaragoza Bridge Pavilion (2005–2008)
Between 1997 and 2010 Hadid ventured into the engineers’ domain of bridge construction, a field also occupied by other top architects including Norman Foster and Santiago Calatrava. Between 2005 and 2008 she designed and built the Bridge-Pavilion of Zaragoza, which was both an exhibit hall and a bridge, created for Expo 2008, an event on the themes of water and durable development. The concrete bridge span on which the pavilion rests is 85 metres long, from the Exposition site to an island in the Ebro River. The bridge carries or is attached to four tunnel-like exhibition spaces she termed “pods”, which spread onto the island, for a total length of 275 metres. The pods are covered with a skin of 26,000 triangular shingles, many of which open to let in air and light. Like her other structures, the bridge-pavilion is composed entirely of diagonal slopes and curves, with no right-angles of orthogonal forms. By its curving shape and low profile, the bridge-pavilion fits smoothly into the grassy landscape along the river.
Sheik Zayed Bridge (1997–2010)
Between 1997 and 2010 she constructed a much more ambitious bridge, the Sheikh Zayed Bridge, between the island of Abu-Dhabi and the mainland of Abu-Dhabi, as well as to the international airport. Both the design of the bridge and the lighting, consisting of gradually changing colours, were designed to give the impression of movement. The silhouette of the bridge is a wave, with a principal arch 235 metres long, standing 60 metres above the water. The total span of four lanes is 842 metres long, and also includes pedestrian walkways.
National Museum of Arts of the 21st Century (MAXXI), Rome, Italy (1998–2010)
The National Museum of Arts of the 21st Century (MAXXI for short), in Rome, was designed and built between 1998 and 2010. The main theme of its architecture is the sense of movement; Everything in the structure seems to be moving and flowing. The facade belongs to her earlier period, with smooth curving white walls and an austere black and white colour scheme. The building is perched on groups of five very thin pylons,
Broad Art Museum, East Lansing, Michigan (2007–2012)
The Broad Art Museum at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan, Hadid’s second project in the United States, has a space of 4,274 square metres, dedicated to contemporary art and modern art and an historical collection. The parallelogram-shaped building leans sharply and seems about to tip over. Hadid wrote that she designed the building so that its sloping pleated stainless steel facades would reflect the surrounding neighbourhood from different angles; the building continually changes colour depending upon the weather, the time of day and the angle of the sun. As Hadid commented, the building “awakens curiosity without ever truly revealing its contents.” Elaine Glusac of the New York Times wrote that the architecture of the new museum “radicalizes the streetscape.” The Museum was used in a scene of the 2016 Batman vs. Superman movie.
Galaxy SOHO, Beijing, China (2008–2012)
Many of Hadid’s later major works are found in Asia. The Galaxy SOHO in Beijing, China (2008–2012) is a combination of offices and a commercial centre in the heart of Beijing with a total of 332,857 square metres, composed of four different ovoid glass-capped buildings joined together by multiple curving passageways on different levels. Hadid explained, “the interior spaces follow the same coherent formal logic of continual curvilinearity.” The complex, like most of her buildings, gives the impression that every part of them is in motion.
Last completed major projects (2013–2016)
Heydar Aliyev Center, Baku Azerbaijan (2007–2013)
The Heydar Aliyev Center in Baku, Azerbaijan (2007–2013) is a gigantic cultural and conference centre containing three auditoriums, a library and museum, with a total space of 10,801 square metres on a surface of 15,514 square metres, and a height of 74 metres. Hadid wrote that “its fluid form emerges from the folds of the natural topography of the landscape and envelops the different functions of the centre.
Posthumous major projects (2016–present)
Salerno Maritime Terminal in Salerno, Italy (2000–2016)
The first major project to be completed shortly after her death was the Salerno Maritime Terminal in Salerno, Italy, her first major transportation building. She won the competition for the building in 2000, but then the project was delayed due to funding and technical issues. Hadid scouted the site from a police boat in the harbour to visualise how it would appear from the water. The final building covers 50,000 square feet and cost 15 million Euros. Paolo Cattrarin, the project architect who completed the building after Hadid’s death, said, “We thought of the building as an oyster, with a hard shell top and bottom,
Awards and honours
Hadid was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2002 Birthday Honours and Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE) in the 2012 Birthday Honours for services to architecture.
Hadid was named an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and an honorary fellow of the American Institute of Architects. She was on the board of trustees of The Architecture Foundation.
In 2002 Hadid won the international design competition to design Singapore’s one-north master plan. In 2004, Hadid became the first female and first Iraqi recipient of the Pritzker Architecture Prize. In 2005, her design won the competition for the new city casino of Basel, Switzerlandand she was elected as a Royal Academician. In 2006, she was honoured with a retrospective spanning her entire work at the Guggenheim Museum in New York; that year she also received an Honorary Degree from the American University of Beirut.
In 2008, she was ranked 69th on the Forbes list of “The World’s 100 Most Powerful Women“. In 2010, she was named by Time as an influential thinker in the 2010 TIME 100 issue. In September 2010 the New Statesman listed Zaha Hadid at number 42 in its annual survey of “The World’s 50 Most Influential Figures of 2010”.
In 2013, she was assessed as one of the 100 most powerful women in the UK by Woman’s Hour on BBC Radio 4.In 2014, 2015 and 2016, Hadid appeared on Debrett’s list of the most influential people in the UK. In January 2015, she was nominated for the Services to Science and Engineering award at the British Muslim Awards.
She won the Stirling Prize, the UK’s most prestigious award for architecture, two years running: in 2010, for one of her most celebrated works, the MAXXI in Rome, and in 2011 for the Evelyn Grace Academy, a Z‑shaped school in Brixton, London. She also designed the Dongdaemun Design Plaza & Park in Seoul, South Korea, which was the centrepiece of the festivities for the city’s designation as World Design Capital 2010. In 2014, the Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre, designed by her, won the Design Museum Design of the Year Award, making her the first woman to win the top prize in that competition.
- 1982: Gold Medal Architectural Design, British Architecture for 59 Eaton Place, London
- 1994: Erich Schelling Architecture Award
- 2001: Equerre d’argent Prize, special mention
- 2002: Austrian State Prize for Architecture for Bergiselschanze
- 2003: European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture for the Strasbourg tramway terminus and car park in Hoenheim, France
- 2003: Commander of the Civil Division of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) for services to architecture
- 2004: Pritzker Prize
- 2005: Austrian Decoration for Science and Art
- 2005: German Architecture Prize for the central building of the BMW plant in Leipzig
- 2005: Designer of the Year Award for Design Miami
- 2005: RIBA European Award for BMW Central Building
- 2006: RIBA European Award for Phaeno Science Centre
- 2007: Thomas Jefferson Medal in Architecture
- 2008: RIBA European Award for Nordpark Cable Railway
- 2009: Praemium Imperiale
- 2010: RIBA European Award for MAXXI
- 2012: Jane Drew Prize for her “outstanding contribution to the status of women in architecture”
- 2012: Jury member for the awarding of the Pritzker Prize to Wang Shu in Los Angeles.
- 2013: 41st Winner of the Veuve Clicquot UK Business Woman Award
- 2013: Elected international member, American Philosophical Society
- She was also on the editorial board of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
List of architectural works
- Cardiff Bay Opera House (1995), Cardiff, Wales – not realised
- Price Tower the extension hybrid project (2002), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, United States – pending
- Signature Towers (2006)
Completed projects (selection)
- Vitra Fire Station (1994), Weil am Rhein, Germany
- Bergisel Ski Jump (2002), Innsbruck, Austria
- Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art (2003), Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
- Hotel Puerta America (2003–2005), Madrid, Spain
- BMW Central Building (2005), Leipzig, Germany
- Ordrupgaard annexe (2005), Copenhagen, Denmark
- Phaeno Science Center (2005), Wolfsburg, Germany
- R. Lopez De Heredia Wine Pavilion (2001–2006), Haro, La Rioja, Spain
- Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs at the American University of Beirut (2006–14), Beirut, Lebanon
- Maggie’s Centres at the Victoria Hospital (2006), Kirkcaldy, Scotland
- Hungerburgbahn new stations (2007), Innsbruck, Austria
- Chanel Mobile Art Pavilion (2006–08), worldwide
- Bridge Pavilion (2008), Zaragoza, Spain
- Pierresvives (2002–12), Montpellier, France
- MAXXI – National Museum of the 21st Century Arts (1998–2010), Rome, Italy.Stirling Prize 2010 winner.
- Guangzhou Opera House (2010), Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China
- Sheikh Zayed Bridge (2007–10), Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
- Galaxy SOHO in Beijing, China.
- London Aquatics Centre (2011), 2012 Summer Olympics, London, United Kingdom
- Riverside Museum (2007–11) development of Glasgow Transport Museum, Scotland
- CMA CGM Tower (2004–11), Marseilles, France
- Evelyn Grace Academy (2006–10) in Brixton, London, UK. Stirling Prize 2011 winner.
- Capital Hill Residence, in Moscow, Russia.
- Roca London Gallery (2009–11) in Chelsea Harbour, London, UK
- d’Leedon, Singapore (2011)
- Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre (2007–12) in Baku, Azerbaijan.
- Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum (2010–12), East Lansing, Michigan, United States
- Mandarin Oriental Dellis Cay, Villa D (2012) (private home under construction), Dellis Cay, Turks & Caicos Islands
- Library and Learning Center of the Vienna University of Economics and Business Campus (2010–2013)
- Salerno Maritime Terminal (2007–13), Salerno, Italy
- Napoli Afragola railway station, Italy (2013)
- Jockey Club Innovation Tower (2013), Hong Kong
- Dongdaemun Design Plaza (2008–14), Seoul, South Korea
- Citylife office tower (Storto) and residentials, Milan, Italy (2014)
- Investcorp Building, St Antony’s College, Oxford (2013–15), UK.
- King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2010–15)
- Nanjing International Youth Cultural Centre, China (2016)
- Antwerp Harbour House, Antwerp, Belgium (2016)
Hadid’s project was named as the best for the Vilnius Guggenheim Hermitage Museum in 2008. In 2010, Hadid was commissioned by the Iraqi government to design the new building for the Central Bank of Iraq. An agreement to complete the design stages of the new CBI building was finalised on 2 February 2012, at a ceremony in London. This was her first project in her native Iraq.In 2012, Hadid won an international competition to design a new National Olympic Stadium as part of the successful bid by Tokyo to host the 2020 Summer Olympics.As the estimated cost of the construction mounted, however, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced in July 2015 that Hadid’s design would be scrapped in favour of a new bidding process to seek a less expensive alternative. Hadid had planned to enter the new competition, but her firm was unable to meet the new requirement of finding a construction company with which to partner.
- 600 Collins Street, Melbourne, Australia
- One Thousand Museum, Miami, United States
- Nuragic and Contemporary art museum (on hold), Cagliari, Italy
- Eleftherias Square in Nicosia, Cyprus
- Esfera City Center in Monterrey, Mexico
- New Century City Art Center, Chengdu, China
- 520 West 28th Street, New York City, United States
- Dominion Tower in Moscow, Russia
- Danjiang Bridge in New Taipei, Taiwan
- Iraqi Parliament Building in Baghdad
- 2014 Qatar 2022 FIFA World Cup stadium design 2016 Winton (Mathematics) Gallery at the Science Museum, London
- 1978 – Guggenheim Museum, New York
- 1983 – Retrospective at the Architectural Association, London
- 1985 – GA Gallery, Tokyo
- 1988 – Deconstructivist Architecture show at Museum of Modern Art, New York
- 1995 – Graduate School of Design at Harvard University
- 1997 – San Francisco MoMA
- 2000 – British Pavilion at the Venice Biennale
- 2001 – Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg
- 2002 – (10 May – 11 August) – Centro nazionale per le arti contemporanee, Rome
- 2003 – (4 May – 17 August) – MAK – Museum für angewandte Kunst (Museum of Applied Arts) in Vienna
- 2006 – (3 June – 25 October) – Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
- 2006 – (1 June – 29 July) – Ma10 Mx Protetch Gallery, Chelsea, NYC
- 2007 – (29 June – 25 November) – Design Museum, London
- 2007 – Dune Formations with David Gill Gallery – Venice Biennale
- 2011/12 – (20 September – 25 March) – Zaha Hadid: Form in Motion at the Philadelphia Museum of Art
- 2012 – Liquid Glacial – David Gill Gallery, London
- 2013 – (29 June – 29 September) – Zaha Hadid: World Architecture at the Danish Architecture Centre
- 2015 – (27 June – 27 September) – Zaha Hadid at the State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia